Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Chemistry. Biology. Ecology

ISSN 1816-9775 (Print)
ISSN 2541-8971 (Online)

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Economic and biological characteristics of the biotypical composition of spring wheat varieties

Brailova Irina S., Voronezh Federal Agrarian Research Center named after V. V. Dokuchaev
Yurieva Natalya I., Voronezh Federal Agrarian Research Center named after V. V. Dokuchaev
Belousova Yulia V., Voronezh Federal Agrarian Research Center named after V. V. Dokuchaev

The aim of this work is to study the component composition and intravarietal polymorphism of storage proteins of three soft and one hard varieties of spring wheat and their relationship with a complex of economically valuable traits. The studies were carried out in 2018–2020 by the department of genetics and immunity at the institute, in the conditions of the southeast of the Central Black Earth Region. In the course of the work, the identification of gliadin biotypes was carried out by electrophoresis in 6.5% polyacrylamide gel, the results of which revealed that the genome of the studied varieties contains: Chernozemnouralskaya 2 (5 biotypes), Voronezh 18 (5 biotypes), Voronezh 20 (4 biotypes) and a solid variety Voronezhskaya 13 (1 biotype). The selected biotypes were propagated for 3 years, analyzed and evaluated according to the indicators of the structural analysis of the elements of productivity and quality. Based on this, their economic and biological characteristics were given. It was found that biotypes 3 and 4 of the Chernozemnouralskaya variety 2, biotypes 1 and 2 of the Voronezhskaya 18 variety, biotypes 1 and 2 of the Voronezhskaya 20 variety proved to be the most productive relative to the standard during the study period. As for the quality indicators, as a result of the research the difference in quality of gliadin biotypes was revealed, which is important to take into account in breeding work to increase genetic diversity when creating high-quality varieties. The ones with the best quality were: biotype 1 of the Chernozemnouralskaya variety 2, biotypes 2 and 3 of the Voronezhskaya 18 variety. The best biotypes, distinguished by a complex of economically valuable traits, which differ from the initial variety, can be used in further breeding work for the accelerated creation of highly productive and high-quality spring wheat varieties.

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