Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Chemistry. Biology. Ecology

ISSN 1816-9775 (Print)
ISSN 2541-8971 (Online)

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Economic and Biological Characteristics of the New Generation of Winter Wheat Varieties

Dorohov Boris N., Agricultural Research Institute of the Central Black Earth Strip named after V.V. Dokuchaev
Vasilyeva Nataliya М., Agricultural Research Institute of the Central Black Earth Strip named after V.V. Dokuchaev

The aim of the work is a comparative assessment of economic and biological characteristics (yield and crop structure elements, winter hardiness, morphological structure of the stem) of the new generation of winter soft wheat varieties. The studies were conducted in 2017–2019 in the conditions of the South-East of the Central black earth region. The object of research is winter wheat, represented by varieties Steppe 135, Basalt, Chernozem 115, Chernozem 130 and Basalt 2, created at different times of selection work. The place of research is the nursery of the main competitive variety testing. It was found that the varieties Chernozemka 130 and Basalt 2, with an average yield of 5.41 and 5.56 t/ha, respectively, exceed the previously created by 0.45–1.90 t/ha (or 9.1–51.9 %). Yield growth is achieved firstly by increasing the productivity of the ear – the number and weight of grain in the ear, as well as the weight of 1000 grains. Winter hardiness is maintained at the level of values of the old breeding varieties, which contributes to successful overwintering in modern conditions characterized by climate warming. In terms of plant height, the new varieties are medium-sized with high resistance to lodging. They are characterized by higher adaptive capabilities and can contribute to the stabilization of grain production.


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