Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Chemistry. Biology. Ecology

ISSN 1816-9775 (Print)
ISSN 2541-8971 (Online)


Full text:
(downloads: 131)
Language: 
Russian
Heading: 
Article type: 
Article
UDC: 
633.11.324:631.52

Economic and Biological Characteristics of the New Generation of Winter Wheat Varieties

Autors: 
Dorohov Boris N., Agricultural Research Institute of the Central Black Earth Strip named after V.V. Dokuchaev
Vasilyeva Nataliya М., Agricultural Research Institute of the Central Black Earth Strip named after V.V. Dokuchaev
Abstract: 

The aim of the work is a comparative assessment of economic and biological characteristics (yield and crop structure elements, winter hardiness, morphological structure of the stem) of the new generation of winter soft wheat varieties. The studies were conducted in 2017–2019 in the conditions of the South-East of the Central black earth region. The object of research is winter wheat, represented by varieties Steppe 135, Basalt, Chernozem 115, Chernozem 130 and Basalt 2, created at different times of selection work. The place of research is the nursery of the main competitive variety testing. It was found that the varieties Chernozemka 130 and Basalt 2, with an average yield of 5.41 and 5.56 t/ha, respectively, exceed the previously created by 0.45–1.90 t/ha (or 9.1–51.9 %). Yield growth is achieved firstly by increasing the productivity of the ear – the number and weight of grain in the ear, as well as the weight of 1000 grains. Winter hardiness is maintained at the level of values of the old breeding varieties, which contributes to successful overwintering in modern conditions characterized by climate warming. In terms of plant height, the new varieties are medium-sized with high resistance to lodging. They are characterized by higher adaptive capabilities and can contribute to the stabilization of grain production.

Reference: 

1. Zhuchenko A. A. Adaptivnoe rastenievodstvo (ecologogeneticheskie osnovy). Teoriya i praktika: v 3 t. [Adaptive plant growing (ecological and genetic fundamentals). Theory and practice: in 3 vols.]. Moscow, Agrorus Publ., 2009, vol. 3. 960 p. (in Russian).
2. Romanenko A. A., Bespalova L. A., Kudryashov I. N., Ablova I. B. Novaya sortovaya politika i sortovaya agrotekhnika ozimoi pshenitsy [New varietal policy and varietal agrotechnics of winter wheat]. Krasnodar, EDVI Publ., 2005. 234 p. (in Russian).
3. Borodin N. I. Ozimaya pshenitsa na Donu [Winter wheat on the Don]. In: Ozimaya pshenitsa [Winter wheat]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo sel’skokhozyaistvennoi literatury, 1957, pp. 488-509 (in Russian).
4. Meister G. K. Problema selektsii ozimoi pshenitsy. Nizhnee Povolzh’e. Otdel’ny ottisk [The problem of selection of winter wheat. Separate print of the article from the magazine “Lower Volga region”], Saratov, 1928, no. 9. 15 p. (in Russian).
5. Podgorny P. I. Ozimaya pshenitsa v Voronezhskoi oblasti [Winter wheat in the Voronezh region]. Voronezh, Voronezhskoe oblastnoe knigoizdatel’stvo, 1948. 87 p. (in Russian).
6. Dorokhov B. A. Gene Pool of the Volga region in the selection of winter wheat in the South-East of the Central district. Bulletin of the Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy, 2018, no. 2, pp. 54-58 (in Russian).
7. Rabinovich S. V. Sovremennye sorta pshenitsy i ikh rodoslovnye [Modern wheat varieties and their pedigrees]. Kiev, Urozhai Publ., 1972. 327 p.
8. Ivannikov V. F., Medvedev A. M. Valuable source material for breeding winter wheat in the Volga region. Issues of crop production in the Middle Volga region. Proceedings of the Kuibyshev Agricultural Institute, 1971, vol. 29, iss. 1, pp. 15-23 (in Russian).
9. Eds. V. F. Dorofeev, Yu. D. Kozlov. Varieties and promising lines of soft and durum wheat breeders of the Volga region. VIR. Catalogue of the World Collection. Leningrad, 1979, iss. 271. 87 p. (in Russian).
10. Maslovskaya E. N., Pryanishnikov A. I., Romanova L. N., Zavorotina A.D., Lyashcheva S. V., Dorogobed A. A. Rezul’taty i napravleniya selektsii ozimoi pshenitsy [Results and directions of winter wheat breeding]. In: Problemy i puti preodoleniya zasukhi v Povolzh’e. Nauchnye Trudy: v 2 ch. [Problems and ways of overcoming drought in the Volga region. Proceedings in 2 parts]. Saratov, 2000, part 1, pp. 74-85 (in Russian).
11. Kharakteristiki sortov rastenii, vpervye vklyuchyonnykh v 2019 godu v Gosudarstvenny reestr selektsionnykh dostizhenii, dopushchennykh k ispol'zovaniyu [Characteristics of plant varieties included in Public Register of Breeding Achievements in 2018 for the fi rst time and approved for use: offi cial publication]. Moscow, FGBNU “Rosinformagrotekh” Publ., 2019. 458 p. (in Russian).
12. Dospekhov B. A. Metodika polevogo opyta s osnovami statisticheskoi obrabotki rezul'tatov issledovanii. 5-e izd., pererab. i dop. [Methodology of fi eld experience with the basics of statistical processing of research results. 5th ed. additional.]. Moscow, Agropromizdat Publ., 1985. 351 p. (in Russian).
13. Nikolaeva T. S. Ozimaya pshenitsa [Winter wheat]. In: Propashnaya sistema zemledeliya. Tsentral’noChernozyomnaya zona [Tilled system of agriculture. Central black earth zone]. I. A. Skachkov, ed. Moscow, Rosselkhozizdat Publ., 1964, pp. 207-223 (in Russian).
14. Dorokhov B. A., Vasilyeva N. M. Plasticity and stability of winter wheat varieties in terms of yield and grain quality. Achievements of Science and Technology of Agriculture, 2017, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 39-42 (in Russian).