Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Chemistry. Biology. Ecology

ISSN 1816-9775 (Print)
ISSN 2541-8971 (Online)


Full text:
(downloads: 162)
Language: 
Russian
Heading: 
Article type: 
Article
UDC: 
633.14.324:004:12

Features of selection of winter wheat on grain quality

Autors: 
Kulevatova Tatyana B., Agricultural Research Institute for South-East Region (ARISER), laboratory of agrometeorological forecast
Lyashcheva Svetlana V., All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology
Zlobina Lyudmila N., Agricultural Research Institute for South-East Region (ARISER), laboratory of agrometeorological forecast
Starichkova Natalia I., Saratov State University
Abstract: 

The quality of grain means a set of technologico-biochemical, baking and food properties determining the economic value of a grain variety. When choosing source material for selection, the degree of grain preservation in adverse environmental conditions is taken into account as well as the genotypic potential of grain yield and quality. It is believed that in the arid conditions of the Volga region, the main limiting factor in the formation of high-quality grain is the amount of precipitation during the growing season of wheat and the uniformity of its distribution, so more than 25 indices of the winter wheat quality are evaluated annually, including the quantitative expression of indices of the rheological properties of dough. Experimental data indicate that such indices as water absorption capacity (WAC, %); energy absorbed by dough during mixing (W·h/kg); dough stability, (min); dough dilution (C2, N·m); and starch retrogradation index (C5, N·m) provide sufficient information for selection. The dough formation time seems the least promising indicator: genotype-environmental interactions on this index were manifested in 100% of cases. In the process of studying the ball-shaped forms of winter soft wheat it has been revealed that they have a high crop yield and excellent grain quality, namely the dough stability, which is 10.3, 9.9, 9.7, and 8.4 min in the studied samples Nos. 209–212, respectively. They also exceed the Saratov 90 variety by C2 , which characterizes dough dilution, having values of 0.57, 0.52, and 0.47 N·m, while having excellent baking qualities. The variation limits of the index of flour whiteness were 60.5–71.9 in the red-grain group of winter wheat and 57.5–69.6 in the white-grain one. The average value of this index is 66.3 and 57.5, respectively. Extra-quality flour can be obtained from the Smuglianka variety and lines with breeding numbers 17-17, 34-17, 1081-17, 1096-17, and 1093-17. Of all the others, we can get highest-grade flour without exception. The correlation between the indicators of meal whiteness and flour whiteness in the red-grain and white-grain forms of winter wheat is 0.7660 at the 1% significance level and 0.9311, respectively. This means that it is possible to assess the whiteness of flour from the color of whole-milled grain with a high probability.

Reference: 
  1. Burdun A. M., Lopatina L. M., Gujda A. N., Loginov Yu. P., Maksimenko V. P. Ocenka ekologicheskoj adaptivnosti sortov narannikh etapakh selektsii [Evaluation of ecological adaptability of varieties in the early stages of breeding]. In: Teoreticheskiei prikladnye aspekty selekcii i semenovodstva pshenicy, rzhi, yachmenya i tritikale. Otv. red. L. Sechnyak [L. Sechnyak, ed. Theoretical and applied aspects of breeding and seed production of wheat, rye, barley and triticale]. Odessa, VSGI,1981, рp. 52–64 (in Russian).
  2. Zhuchenko A. A. Strategiya adaptivnoj intensifi kacii sel’skogo hozyajstva (koncepciya) [Strategy of adaptive intensifi cation of agriculture (concept)]. Pushchino, ONTI PNC RAN, 1994. 148 p. (in Russian).
  3. Bebyakin V. M., Rogozhkina T. B. Plasticity and stability of grades of summer soft wheat on quality of grain. Vestnik RASKHN, 1995, no. 5, pр. 40–43 (in Russian).
  4. Kulevatova T. B., Zlobina L. N., Lyashcheva S. V., Andreeva L. V. Informativeness of non-traditional criteria of technological properties of the test on the basis of winter wheat. Hleboprodukty, 2018, no. 9, pр. 46–50 (in Russian).
  5. Sapega V. A. Genotype-environment Interaction in wheat yield determination. Vestnik Agricultural Sciences of Kazakhstan, 1984, no. 3, рp. 33–35 (in Russian).
  6. Borovik A. N. Selektsiya i vozvrashcheniye v kul’turu ischezayushchikh i redkikh vidov pshenitsy: sharozernoy (Triticum sphaerococcum Perc.), polby (Triticum dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl.), tverdoy (Triticum durum Desf.) i sozdaniye tritikale sharozernoy (Triticale sphaerococcum) dlya diversifi katsii proizvodstva vysokokachestvennogo zerna : avtoref. dis. … d-ra s.-kh. nauk [Selection and return to the culture of endangered and rare species of wheat: seroservey (Triticum sphaerococcum Perc.), spelt (Triticum dicoccum (Schrank.) Schuebl.), solid (Triticum durum Desf.) and the creation of triticale (Triticale sphaerococcum) to diversify the production of high-quality grain. Thesis Diss. Dr. Sci. (Agricult.)]. Krasnodar, 2016. 48 p. (in Russian).
  7. Bebyakin V. M., Buntina M. V. The evaluation of grain quality of spring wheat by SDS-test. Vestnik sel’skokhozyaystvennoy nauki, 1991, no. 1, pр. 67–70 (in Russian).
  8. Kulevatova T. B., Zlobina L. N., Osyka I. A., Andreeva L. V., Lyashcheva S. V. Osobennosti kachestva zerna belozernykh i krasnozernykh form ozimoj myagkoi pshenitsy [Features of grain quality of white and red winter soft wheat forms]. In: Innovatsionnye protsessy v pishchevykh tekhnologiyakh: nauka i praktika: materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii, posvyashchennoj 90-letiyu Vserossijskog onauchno-issledovatel’skogo instituta zerna i produktov ego pererabotki (VNIIZ). 19–20 fevralya, 2019 [Innovative processes in food technologies: science and practice: materials of the international scientifi c and practical conference, dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the all-Russian research Institute of grain and products of its processing (VNIIZ). February 19–20, 2019]. Moscow, VNIIZ, 2019, pр. 217–219 (in Russian).
Received: 
01.05.2020
Accepted: 
06.09.2020
Published: 
01.03.2021