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Kulagin A. Y., Ishbirdin A. R., Tagirova O. V. Adaptive Variability of Willow White (Salix alba L.) in the Conditions of Technogenic Pollution of the Environment (South Ural Region). Izvestiya of Saratov University. Chemistry. Biology. Ecology, 2020, vol. 20, iss. 1, pp. 90-101. DOI:

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Adaptive Variability of Willow White (Salix alba L.) in the Conditions of Technogenic Pollution of the Environment (South Ural Region)


The peculiarities of adaptation and variability of Salix alba L. at the morphological level were studied in extreme natural and technogenic conditions of the Southern Urals. It was found that Salix alba is characterized by a wide ecological valence, and in terms of morphological variability – is stable morphological structure. The influence of geographical, climatic and anthropogenic factors on the level of morphological integration of Salix alba was revealed. Thus, under optimal growth conditions, the level of morphological integration can reach maximum values, while extreme conditions of existence contribute to the reduction of the morphological integrity of the species. The heterogeneous influence of various stress factors (pollution, soil moisture, continental climate) on the structure of morphological variability was revealed. Depending on the stress factor and the strength of its impact, the type of ontogenetic tactics in the development of signs also changes. Under moderate stress, the level of fluctuating asymmetry increases, and under extreme stress, the level of fluctuating asymmetry decreases, which may be a manifestation of the adaptive strategy of Salix alba under extreme stress. The analysis of adaptive variability of Salix alba morphological traits testifies to the manifestation of different types of ontogenetic tactics: convergent tactics is manifested in traits in the samples, where the main stressful factor is the degree of moisture; divergent/ convergent tactics is manifested in the features in the samples, where the main stress factor is the level of pollution. For Salix alba under stress the protective stress ontogenetic strategy is marked. Ontogenetic strategies of Salix alba characterize this species as a competitor.


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